It is possible to be said that there are fungi throughout
and in all means.
In waters, the ground, the air (esporas), parasites in plants, employees in the nutritional and pharmaceutical industry, the roots (and líquenes symbiotic), in the meadows and forests (mushrooms).
Fungi of all the sizes exist, from the microscopic ones to the great mushrooms, and of all the colors and forms. But the common characteristic to all of them is the photosynthetic chlorophyll absence or other pigments. For that reason, the fungi have necessity to find nutritious the substances already elaborated. They are, for that reason, heterótrofos and they can be saprofítos (that are fed on substances in decomposition), symbiotic parasites or (in combination with other plants).
The fungi are made up of filaments (hifas) that are rows of cells, that form a network or micelio.
They reproduce by esporas that form in the esporíferos apparatuses, that are the most visible part of the fungus.
They exist more than 50,000 species.
Traditionally there are including a the fungi within the vegetal kingdom, considering them, as plants without chlorophyll, calling to them also Micófitos and Eumicetes. Nevertheless the fungi are neither plants nor animals, but another different kingdom.
The most visible differences are the following ones:
Therefore micólogos (those that studies the fungi), reject their inclusion within vegetables.
The fungi are developed prefentemente in humid and dark places since they do not need the light to survive. They are incapable to take place by itself the organic compounds that need to survive, for that reason live like parasitos of other alive beings, or in symbiosis with the plants forming the micorrizas calls with the roots.
Of these three groups to the Basidiomicetes and the Ascomicetes one denominates "superior Fungi to them", and on them it will deepen being more the known species.
In the fungus it is necessary to differentiate two fundamental parts: the vegetative body and the reproductive body.
The vegetative body, that is under earth, is formed by called filaments hifas which they can be unicellular (with a succession of nucleos), and pluricellular.
The set of all hifas is micelio. He is the one that is in charge to absorver the mineral subtancias of the ground for food of the fungus.
Micelio in fact is the fungus, since the mushroom (to which vulgarly fungus is called), is its reproductive apparatus.
The fungi reproduce by esporas. The superior fungi have located cells mother in himenio, are the ones in charge to produce the esporas. In the case of the Basidiomicetes to these cells mother Basidios is denominated to them, whereas the cells mother of the Ascomicetes are the Disgusts.
The esporas of the basidios and the disgusts are sent to the outside for the propagation of the species. If the espora is deposited in a place whose conditions are favorable it will give origin micelio. This it will grow under earth or between hojarasca, it will be ramificará and it will be intermingled with the micelios of other esporas. In the land where humeda and the conditions of the means more is adapted a mushroom that will carry in his himenio the disgusts or basidios will grow that will expel to the outside the esporas, giving rise again to the reproductive cycle of the fungus.
They go away has to indicate here some mushrooms
that can be found in Aragón, and before beginning a warning:
there are poisonous and even mortal mushrooms.
There is no general rule to differentiate a poisonous mushroom from other than it is not it. The only solution is to identify each mushroom before eating it and not touching nor to prove no that not this insurance of as is.
The mushrooms (the fungi) have a fundamental paper in the nature since they disturb and they make for the plants the material accessible that disturb, therefore is necessary to deal with not harming them unnecessarily.
The mushrooms are due to cut (not to start), by the foot without damaging micelio that is in the ground.
Some of the mushrooms that can be found in Aragón are the following ones:
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